Patient Safety and Quality

IMPAQ Health
Program Evaluations
Research Services
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Office of Communications and Knowledge Transfer
Process Evaluations and Qualitative Research


IMPAQ recently completed an evaluation of the effectiveness of various dissemination and implementation approaches undertaken by the Office of Communications and Knowledge Transfer (OCKT) related to AHRQ’s comparative effectiveness research (CER) portfolio, as part of the Effective Healthcare Program (EHC). Under this project, the team determined the level of increased awareness, understanding, use, and benefits of CER among target audiences who included: consumers/patients, clinicians, health care system decision-makers, policy makers, and purchasers. For this evaluation, the team undertook two major efforts: collection and analysis of the quarterly dissemination contractors’ data (described above), and annual surveys of clinicians (via mail) and consumers (via telephone) to assess level of awareness of CER among both audiences. The team also conducted focus groups with each of the five targeted audiences (consumers, clinicians, health care system decision-makers, policy makers, and purchasers) to gain additional insights into differences between those who are aware and use CER and those who are either not aware or are aware and do not use CER in making healthcare choices.


IMPAQ led the longitudinal, comprehensive evaluation of the National Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) from September 2009 to September 2013. The purpose of this project was to perform an iterative formative and summative longitudinal evaluation of the HAI NAP and its initiatives using the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) evaluation model.  The results of the ongoing evaluations will be used to provide feedback to guide improvements to the ongoing and future programs and initiatives of the HAI NAP. Specifically, the evaluation team examined the policy context and leadership and strategy of the HAI NAP, as well as effects on the HAI prevention system (including system properties and system functions, such as prioritization, coordination and alignment, knowledge and infrastructure development, and HAI prevention practice adoption). The evaluation also focused heavily upon effects of HAI efforts on stakeholders. The project involved interviews with agency leaders, key stakeholders, and leaders of the QI efforts under study; document and literature reviews; review of HHS data systems and analysis of HAI rates from multiple data sources; and the development of a special journal supplement to disseminate the evaluation’s findings.